This article summarizes some key North Carolina landlord-tenant laws applicable to residential rental units.
The Official State Statutes and other reputable municipal sources were used to research this information. All sources are cited appropriately.
With that said, landlord-tenant laws are always changing, and may even vary from county to county or city to city. You have a responsibility to perform your own research and cautiously apply the laws to your unique situation.
Official Rules and Regulations
- N.C. General Statute §§ 42 – Landlord and Tenant
- N.C. General Statute §§ 41A – State Fair Housing Act
- N.C. General Statute §§ 7A-19 – Small Claim Actions in District Court.
- [GUIDE] North Carolina Private Landlord/Tenant Law Overview (pdf)
- [GUIDE] North Carolina Landlord-Tenant Booklet (pdf)
- Security Deposit Maximum: Not to exceed two weeks’ rent if a tenancy is week-to-week, one and one-half months’ rent if a tenancy is month-to-month, and two months’ rent for terms greater than month to month. (NCGS § 42-51)
- Permitted Uses of the Deposit: NCGS § 42-51 outlines the allowable uses of the deposit.
- Deadline for Returning Security Deposit: 30 days, unless the landlord needs more time to evaluate damage, upon which an interim notice may be sent within 30 days, with a final determination within 60 days. (NCGS § 42-52)
- Security Deposit Interest: No Statute
- Separate Security Deposit Bank Account:
- Landlord is required to deposit the funds into a trust account with a licensed and insured bank or savings institution in the State of North Carolina, or furnish a bond from an insurance company licensed to do business in North Carolina. (NCGS § 42-50)
- The landlord must notify the tenant within 30 days after the beginning of the lease term of the name and address of the bank or institution where his deposit is currently located or the name of the insurance company providing the bond. (NCGS § 42-50)
- Pet Deposits: A reasonable non-refundable pet deposit is allowed (NCGS § 42-53)
- Advance Notice of Deposit Withholding: No (NCGS § 42-52)
- Move-Out Checklist/Itemized List of Damages and Charges: Yes (NCGS § 42-52)
- Record Keeping of Deposit Withholdings: No Statute
- Receipt of Deposit: No Statute
Lease, Rent and Fees:
- Rent Is Due: No Statute
- Rent Increase Notice: No Statute
- Rent Grace Period: 5 days (NCGS § 42-46(a))
- Application Fees: No Statute. Use Cozy to avoid charging application fees, since the tenant pays for the credit report directly.
- Late Fees:
- If rent is due in monthly installments, the landlord may charge a late fee up to $15.00 or five percent (5%) of the monthly rent, whichever is greater. (NCGS § 42-46(a)(1))
- If rent is due in weekly installments, the landlord may charge a late fee up to $4.00 or five percent (5%) of the weekly rent, whichever is greater. (NCGS § 42-46(a)(2))
- Prepaid Rent: No Statute
- Additional Fees: Some fees are allowed and are specified in (NCGS § 42-46)
- Returned Check Fees: $25 (NCGS § 25-3-506). Use Cozy to collect rent online to nearly eradicate late payments.
- Tenant Allowed to Withhold Rent for Failure to Provide Essential Services (Water, Heat, etc.): A tenant cannot withhold rent for any reason unless a judge or civil magistrate allows the tenant to do so (NCGS § 42-44)
- Tenant Allowed to Repair and Deduct Rent: No Statute
- Landlord Allowed to Recover Court and Attorney Fees: No (NCGS § 42-25.9)
- Landlord Must Make a Reasonable Attempt to Mitigate Damages, including an Attempt to Rerent: No Statute
Notices and Entry:
- Notice to Terminate Tenancy – Fixed End Date in Lease: No Statute. Typically no notice is needed as the lease simply expires.
- Notice to Terminate Tenancy – Year-to-Year Lease: One month or more before the end of the current year of the tenancy. (NCGS § 42-14)
- Notice to Terminate Tenancy – Month-to-Month Lease: 7 days (NCGS § 42-14)
- Notice to Terminate Tenancy – Week-to-Week Lease: 2 days (NCGS § 42-14)
- Notice to Terminate Tenancy – The Leasing of a Space for a Manufactured Home: 60 days (NCGS § 42-14)
- Notice of Date/Time of Move-Out Inspection: No Statute
- Termination for Nonpayment: 10 days (NCGS § 42-3)
- Termination for Lease Violation: Immediately (NCGS § 42-26)
- Required Notice before Entry: No Statute, but 24 hours is recommended
- Entry Allowed with Notice for Maintenance and Repairs (non-emergency): No Statute
- Entry Allowed with Notice for Showings: No Statute
- Emergency Entry Allowed without Notice: No Statute
- Entry Allowed During Tenant’s Extended Absence: No Statute
- Notice to Tenants for Pesticide Use: No Statute
- Lockouts Allowed: No (NCGS § 42-25.9)
- Utility Shut-offs Allowed: No (NCGS § 42-25.9)
- Self-Help Evictions: If a tenant is unlawfully evicted, the landlord is liable for the actual damages incurred to the tenant. (NCGS § 42-25.9)
- Abandonment of Personal Property: Personal property is considered abandoned 10 days after lawful repossession of the property and formal written notice is posted inside and outside of the property, and there has been no communication from the tenant. Landlords must follow specific instructions in NCGS § 42-25.9 and NCGS § 42-36.2 .
Disclosures and Miscellaneous Notes:
- Landlord’s Duties: A detailed list of landlord responsibilities is provided in NCGS § 42-42.
- Renter’s Duties: A detailed list of tenant responsibilities is provided in NCGS § 42-43.
- Domestic Violence Situations:
- Proof of Status: Landlord is entitled to verify claim of Domestic Violence status. (NCGS § 42-42.2)
- Protection from Termination: Landlord cannot terminate a tenancy, fail to renew a tenancy, or refuse to enter into a rental agreement with a victim of domestic violence. (NCGS § 42-42.2)
- Early Termination Rights: A tenant is allowed to terminate a lease with 30 days written notice and proof of Domestic Violence status. (NCGS § 42-45.1)
- Locks: Upon request, the landlord must change or re-key the locks, or give the tenant permission to do so, at the tenant’s expense within 48 hours if the perpetrator does not live in the same dwelling unit as the victim, and 72 hours if the perpetrator lives in the dwelling unit. If a landlord fails to change the locks within 48 hours, a tenant may do so, but must give a copy of the keys to the landlord within 48 hours. (NCGS § 42-42.3)
- Lead Disclosure: Landlords must disclose all known lead paint hazards. Landlords must also provide tenants, as an attachment to a written lease, with an information pamphlet on lead-based paint hazards.
- Retaliation: For 12 months thereafter, a landlord must not terminate or refuse to renew a lease to a tenant who has filed an official complaint to a Government Authority, been involved in a tenant’s organization, made a good faith complaint, or exercised a legal right. Other actions are prohibited. (NCGS § 42-37.1)
Court and Legal Related:
- North Carolina Small Claims Court
- North Carolina Department of Justice
- North Carolina Court System
- North Carolina Bar Association
- LawHelpNC.org – Renting and Evictions
- North Carolina Lawyer Referral Service
- Legal Aid of North Carolina
- This is the Law: Landlords and Tenants (North Carolina Bar Association)
- Business License Required: No statewide statute, but local cities and counties may have regulations and requirements. Check with your local governing authority.
- LawHelp – Landlord-Tenant
- North Carolina Department of Insurance
- North Carolina Consumer Protection
- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development – North Carolina – Tenant’s Rights
- North Carolina Real Estate Commission
- North Carolina Housing Finance Agency
- North Carolina Fair Housing Project
- North Carolina Housing Coalition
- North Carolina Human Relations Division
- Apartment Association of North Carolina
- Chapel Hill Department of Housing
- Charlotte Housing Authority
- Durham Housing Authority
- Fayetteville Metropolitan Housing Authority
- Franklin-Vance-Warren Opportunity, Inc.
- Gastonia Housing Authority
- Greensboro Housing Authority
- Housing Authority of the City of Greenville
- Housing Authority of the City of High Point
- Washington Housing Authority
- Mid East Regional Housing Authority
- Pembroke Housing Authority
- Pender County Housing Authority
- Raleigh Housing Authority
- Rocky Mount Housing Authority
- Sanford Housing Authority
- Statesville Housing Authority
- Wilmington Housing Authority
- Wilson Housing Authority
- Housing Authority of Winston-Salem
- North Carolina Association of REALTORS®
- Charlotte Regional Realtor® Association
- Raleigh Regional Association of REALTORS®
- Greensboro Regional REALTORS® Association
- Durham Regional Association of REALTORS®
- Winston-Salem Regional Association of REALTORS®
- Long Leaf Pine REALTORS (formerly the Fayetteville Regional Association of REALTORS®)
Landlord-Tenant Rights and Responsibilities