Is a Landlord Always Responsible for Mold Remediation?

Written on February 3, 2016 by , updated on December 3, 2019

Mold RemediationMold is a bit like gluten — some people are more sensitive to it than others, and those that are sensitive can be almost religious in their avoidance.

If you have a tenant with mold sensitivities who alerts you to a mold problem, the appropriate response may not be obvious.

You may think that it’s your responsibility to clean it up, but many times, it’s not. It depends on the severity and cause of the problem.

On one hand, it’s impractical to mount an expensive remediation project for a problem that may exist more in imagination than reality. On the other hand, failure to respond to a genuinely hazardous condition could result in significant discomfort for a sensitive individual, and it could also result in a lawsuit.

Mold is a controversial health issue. Savvy landlords take it seriously, but they don’t overreact.

Governing Laws on Mold Remediation

As of January 2016, there was no federal law setting permissible limits or tolerance standards on mold in residential building, and only six states — California, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey and Texas — had passed laws regulating mold levels in indoor environments. In Virginia, the law expressly requires the landlord to:

…maintain the premises in such a condition as to prevent the accumulation of moisture and the growth of mold, and to promptly respond to any notices from a tenant as provided in subdivision.

While the other 50 states don’t specifically legislate mold, they do require the landlord to disclose potentially hazardous conditions at the time of rental, and they also require landlords to correct conditions that make a dwelling uninhabitable. Toxic mold is arguably one of those conditions.

Some municipalities have laws that clearly define the landlord’s responsibilities.

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there may be as many as 300,000 varieties of mold on our planet, and many are benign. Some, such as Penicillium, are even beneficial.

Because they are virtually everywhere, however, it may be impossible to take a breath without inhaling some type of mold spore, and most people do so without consequence. Sensitive individuals, however, can experience respiratory irritation, aggravated asthma symptoms, headaches and other ailments, especially when certain strains are present. The two most problematic are:

  • Stachybotrys chartarum — Otherwise known as toxic black mold, this strain produces a mycotoxin which is responsible for the distress it causes. It grows in moist dark environments, such as in basements, damp framing and water-damaged drywall. It gets its name from its ponderously sinister color and heavy texture, both of which are warnings that it’s nothing to trifle with.
  • Aspergillus — Aspergillus is a family of molds, and only some of them produce mycotoxins. Probably more common than Stachybotrus, it grows in most of the same places. Lacking the threatening appearance or black mold, it may be even more dangerous, because it’s lighter and more easily airborne.

There is no guarantee that either of these species are growing in any particular mold colony, but testing for them would require detailed inspection with a microscope and is usually impractical. Consequently, any mold colony growing in a dark, wet place in a dwelling unit is suspect, and it’s difficult to claim that toxic strains are absent and that a particular colony is harmless.

Who Should Clean it Up?

It’s clear that any mold that results from a plumbing or structural leak should be addressed by the landlord as part of the repair. But should a landlord feel compelled to respond to a mold problem caused by unsanitary domestic habits? Probably not.

Landlords aren’t required to provide cleaning services, and to insist on doing so would constitute an invasion of privacy. For example, it would be reasonable to expect a tenant to clean up a mold colony growing in a corner in which he or she habitually throws damp towels.

Between these two extremes, however, are many gray areas. For example, mold often grows inside drains that habitually clog. A clogged drain is usually caused by what goes in the drain, not the drain itself. Or consider that mold may grow in a poorly ventilated crawl space, but the lack of ventilation may be due to piles of stored belongings.

Here are some industry standards on the responsibility of mold remediation, but please know that each county, or Judge, might view this differently.

Mold on the ceiling due to leaky roofLandlordThe landlord is responsible for roof leaks.
Mold seaping through basement wallsLandlordThe landlord is responsible for cracks in the foundation.
Mold caused by leaky pipeLandlordLeaky pipes are usually always the landlord's responsibility.
Any mold present at move-inLandlordLandlord must provide a clean, safe unit
Surface mold on furnitureTenantThe tenant must ensure the house is being ventilated regularly.
Mold on shower tiles or bathtubTenantTenant is responsible for regular cleanings, which will prevent this.
Mold on window sillsTenantThis is caused by condensation and lack of ventilation.
Mold on drywall where wet towels are typically keptTenantThe wet towel is the cause.

The ideal landlord/tenant relationship includes good communication and a commitment to work together to maintain quality of life.

In the end, that shared commitment is the key to health and wellbeing for everyone.

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59 CommentsLeave a Comment

  • Lauren Mosher

    Hi Chris,

    I live in Massachusetts and have a unique case that I cannot find information on. There has been significant mold growth on my clothings, shoes and bags in my rental unit. A professional came in and tested the air, the humidity was at 78%, the meter reading came back that the sheet rock was moist and there was water in the HVAC system. I would like the cleaning and replacement costs to be covered by the building, but they are claiming negligence when it is evident there is a problem with the HVAC system. What is the best way to proceed?

    Thank you,


    • Lucas Hall

      Hi Lauren

      If the landlord disagrees with your judgement, then I suggest you get a legal opinion from an attorney. If the lawyer agrees with you, then perhaps he/she will write a demand letter for you and send it to the landlord.

  • Aaron J Harvey

    I’m in Va and live in a house w/4 other guys, we each have our own lease. The owners live out of state and are rarely in town. Our bathroom does not have a ventilation or fan system at all, and the entire ceiling is covered in dots of mold now. Most of it is small patterns but there are probably 5 or 6 spots the size of Half Dollar coins that are definitely a dark black color. I have mentioned it to the owners but they simply said they’d look into it (they also just had to fix the drywall ceiling in my room and the living room because the living room one fell and mine was cracking really bad and going to fall after they ignored messages about the cracks). What are my options here? I’ve noticed I’ve been getting sick more frequently lately.

  • Russ

    Our landlord had bath fitters come in and install a tub liner before me and my fiancee moved in. At some point the sealant around the drain must have came apart because there is a TON of water just sitting in the tub under the liner. When you step on it, it is like a waterbed. I have terrible allergies and asthma and ive been quite sick for awhile and after many visits to the doctor I cant figure out why. Then this tub thing happens and I thought maybe mold was the issue. We had the place tested and the swab came back positive for mold in the walls of the unit. High levels of Eurotium Species which could explain my symptoms. If our landlord refuses to fix the issue, can we break the lease and leave? Is he forced to fix this? Options??

  • Melinda Johnson

    I have mold in my closet at times my clothes are damp I have one child that had heart problems and one that had mixed connective tissue disorder w/ lung problems. I’ve wiped my kitchen cabinets down several time with bleach a d black mold keeps coming back I’m on section 8 I have told my landlord his response was thanks for giving him the heads up.i can’t afford to have them come out and test for mold .so what should I do

    • See Hill

      I have a very similar situation and noticed you posting was last year. I’m wondering how it turned . I on urban housing in Texas

  • Denise Tolbert

    I saw a leaking pipe under rental house, called realty company, 3 days later fixed leak. Mold on boards, under bathroom floor, they sent out 2 estimates, came out to repair a month later, did remove a couple boards, but covered up mold under house with new boards on top of it. Is that safe. Wants me to renew contract stating no mold , the guy fixed it said mold.

  • Sandra

    I am a tenant who is Highly mold sensitive, and inadvertently caused an (invisible, imperceptible) mold problem in my apartment through an innocent error. Since that’s my fault, I want to try to hire professionals to help me clean and remediate the normal must and nontoxic mold in my apartment.

    I was just informed by a remediation company that in Massachusetts in 2015 a law was passed forbidding a contractor to clean up mold in a rental on the tenant’s behalf. That contractor would have to have permission of the landlord first. Is that true? What is this law and where can I read it? What are the implications for me, especially since I haven’t had any professional testing or validation that I actually have mold?

  • Cherie

    I am renting a trailer and in my sons window there is a bunch of black mold and the smell in his room you can smell the mold badly and its only getting worse. His window is cracked really bad. And I have cleaned the window seal and the window the parts that is not broken with bleach but it aint helping. We have contacted the landlord about it and he said that he is not going to do nothing about it. I dont know what to do cause I really do not have the money to take this issue to court nor do I have the money to move out. What do I need to do.

  • Bling

    Live in New Hampshire, and we live in a split level apartment and in the past year we noticed that we are always stuffed up and I noticed that in one of the rooms upstairs that I could see what looked like the sheetrock screws where showing through so I cut a small hole in sheetrock and I could see mold growing what looks like all inside the walls it became quite concerning that we were breathing in this for quite some time it would seem to me that the roof must be leaking in the wall somehow but never noticed any water stains anywhere. Just wondering if anyone else has had a problem like this and is the landlord responsible for this problem. To me it seems like it must of been growing for a long time and can’t help thinking if he knew

  • Cara Jepson

    I renters in my parents house who been there 3 years and sign a new lease every year. In the spring there is usually small amount of water that comes in the basement if the tenants don’t keep the snow away from the house. The moisture will some times lead to small amount mold that is remedied buy treating and preventing it with a dehumidifier. The question I have is the renters knew this moving in and signed a new lease every year knowing that in the spring what would happen if not prevented. So this year they called me the landlord and asked to be let out of the lease early because they bought a new house and were closing on April 20th the lease isn’t up till July. When I said no they then called my parents and continued us second post

  • Cara Jepson

    Continued post.. the renters then called my parents two hours later after I the landlord said no to them being let out the lease 3 months early and told my parents there is mold everywhere and that they are moving out the end of April do to unsafe living environment. They never mention in any prior conversations the previous week or the same day which we talked earlier about any mold until they were told no to moving out early. I am wondering if they are liable for the mold if they didn’t report it coming back this year until it was to there advantage. Also we sent notice to enter the property this weekend to do an inspection and treat the mold if there is any, what can we do if they wont let us in or say no to us coming. We live in MN

  • Kim

    Is “proper ventilation” such as having a bathroom fan required in an apartment unit? I’m in such an old apartment that there is no ventilation besides the small window in the bathroom, so some moisture goes through the window while the rest goes into the bedroom which has caused mold on the walls and even on the inside of my closet. Even when all windows and doors have been left open during a shower, moisture and condensation is all over the apartment. Is this a landlord or tenant issue?

  • sandy salazar

    I have tenants who complained about mold. We got an expert advice and they recommended that the tenants evacuate the house for 3 weeks to fix the problem. I offered them an opportunity to move into another house that will be evacuated in 3 weeks and they refused. They do not want to evacuate the house and requested we buy the paint for them to paint over the mold.

    As a landlord, what are my legal rights? If they refuse to move out, how can I proceed to avoid legal ramifications later on?

    Also, am I responsible to find and pay for their stay elsewhere?

  • Cindi

    My landlord knew of faulty windows and admittedly failed to replace them. Condensation grew and now there is mold along the wall below and above the window. Am I responsible or the landlord?

  • Rae

    I just moved in and there is mold in my cabinets and on the door hinges who is responsible I live in Oklahoma

  • Jackie Bernstein

    I have lived here for 8 yrs now There are mold spores in my bathroom at the top of the wall and they keep spreading. I have told my landlord about these, and she won’t take care of it. All she says is move out but rentals are so expensive in California, What can I do?

  • Judy

    I am renting a house with a friend and in July of this year I found black mold in the basement. We notified rental company and they were going to send someone out I took the day off work no one showed up. We continue to call them for we had to leave the house ASAP!! All of our personal belongings are still in the house. They hav admitted it’s there fault and have had it tested!!! Very very toxic!! Now they won’t help clean or replace our belongings.. have nothing!!! What can we do ??! Need help have a lawyer but not getting any where

  • Dee Hill

    My situation is going in theatre direction. I live in Texas in urban housing apartments. The apartment I am in was condemned but they cover the windows and literally spray painted everything without even cleaning first. Even the toilet bowl! The couple living there prior to me both died a few months ago of complications that could have been the toxic mold my test came back positive for . After the husband died of cancer they moved her to another apartment where she died a month later.

  • Lucinda Linder

    Im having a problem with mold an water on my window sills i clean it an its right back there was so much water on the bathroom sill it ran down the wall i keep telling the landlord but nothing gets done its like that on all the windows water just drips off the bottom of the windows its awful it smells sometimes my daughter is allergic to mold is it my landlords responsibility to fix these windows who could i call to complain about them not doing their job

  • Ciara A.

    In my apartment there was a water heater leak in the utility closet 3-4 years ago.This past December my unit finally received a new water heater, new flooring in the utility closet and the laundry area. All these years, the water has clearly been seeping in the installation (the installation never been replaced) of the flooring and the walls.There was a distinctive smell in my master bedroom. Now, the odor is overpowering the main areas where the water heater leaked years ago–I know there is mold. My landlord is telling me that I am responsible to get/pay a mold inspector and then she will get the odor problem fixed. this is not true. The negligence of this issue for this long has now caused this. So there is NO way that I should. Advice ?

  • Virginia

    I just found black mold in my bedroom on and around the window sill. The windows are single pain and poorly installed. Near the ceiling is old water damage. We have also been running two humidifiers due to how dry it is because we are just coming out of winter. On a side not we did bring up black mold on the ceiling in the basement around the time we moved in May 2018. Who’s fault is it?

  • Cathy

    I live in Kentucky and have mold in two bedroom walls, basement. Both rooms were children live. Mold is from floor under window and corner area. I have notified landlord over 1 month ago, he advised he would have someone come out, to date, over 5 weeks now, no one has. I have children who live in the home and have to sleep in the frontroom/living room because they are small and I wont have them in same room as mold. One is baby and won’t have breath that stuff, her eyes were getting puffy from it. doctor confirmed. need to know should I contact health department on landlord? I did poor bleach on spots to help reduce growth.

  • Jared Bonnie

    I live in an Apartment complex and my upstairs neighbor’s washer broke pouring water into my apartment and flooding a large section of my carpet. This happened 6 days ago, after multiple phone calls a maintenance worker just told me it is too early for mold to have grown. All they did was send a carpet cleaner. When I got home the night after they sent a carpet cleaner, the smell was so horrendous I slept all my windows open and lit 3 different candles. I believe there is mold growing under the carpet and they have not done anything to at least check, not did they make an attempt to dry the affected areas. Can someone advise? The smell is really bad, and I am afraid mold will/has grow(n).

  • Carol Rafferty

    It started out the whole length of the entrance way on each side of it is scattered black. It’s dry & if you sweep it, it will show where you sweep it. I just took out the boxes in my bedroom closet & the whole floor is black. The one corner is rather dark. Not about to put anything back until I know what I’m dealing with. It is under boxes, furniture, along baseboards & doors. The kitchen drain is smelling, so I’m going to do a mole test. It’s getting worse & growing. Back in the spring of 2017, there was 3 leaks behind the apartments & a huge sink hole appeared. My apartment has haze all through it. Back in May of this year, my bath room drain clogged up again, so I plunged it. Greenish/blackish slimy looking anchovies came out. Sensitiv

  • Titilayo Adebesin

    Hi Chris, I just moved into my apartment and upon moving in there are a lot of mold in the basement where our washer and dryer is, and I asked the landlord if he could clean that, he said no that basement is not where we live so he can not clean it and I am very sensitive to mold. We also have mold in the bathroom tub and I believe since I’m a new tenant it is not my responsibility to clean it up. I want to break my lease but don’t know if that will cause me a problem or if I have enough reason to do that. Please help me

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